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Some EV History - Page M

Last updated 2003.07.18

Introduction | Acknowledgements | Other Sources of EV History Information
Your Information Is Invited | Why are there so few electric cars?

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Items of Historical Interest in the Development and Commercialization of EVs

- M -


Elektro Lastwagen


Marketeer - see Westinghouse

Maschinenfabrik Augsburn Nurnberg - see MAN


McLaughlin was far better known for their gasoline-powered vehicles, including the Canadian Royal Tour limousines and the various McLaughlin and Buick-McLaughlin models. However, the McLaughlin Carriage Company Limited of Oshawa, Ontario, did advertise for a time the availability of "McLaughlin Electrics on Rauch & Lang Chassis". (see also Rauch & Lang).


The Madelvic Motor Carriage Co. Ltd. of Granton (Scotland) produced an electric brougham from 1898 to 1900. The vehicle was driven by a small fifth wheel which sat below the body of the car, but which was attached to the front axle unit, which also carried the motor and batteries. This 3-wheel tractor unit could also be attached to horse-drawn carriages, replacing the horses. The company also produced some 2-seater electric cars, which drove the front wheels in a more conventional manner, prior to be absorbed by the Kingsburgh Motor Company in 1900.



Starting in 1974, M.A.N. produced battery-powered electric buses capable of carrying up to 100 passengers each. At least 20 of these buses were built, and they saw regular service in German cities for many years.

Marathon Electric Car

This company produced a series of electric golf carts and small industrial vehicles before entering the on-road electric vehicle market in the 1970's. While most production occurred in Montreal (Canada), a second manufacturing facility was established in South Carolina to service the expected demand in the U.S. Marathon supplied an electric-powered television camera platform for the Olympic marathon race at the 1976 Summer Olympic games held in Montreal. Prior to folding in the 1980's, after the 1970's demand for EVs had pretty much dried up in North America, this firm did produce a unique mobile banking kiosk for use inside Mirabel airport in 1982. This vehicle could be driven from gate to gate to meet passengers of incoming and departing aircraft to offer currency exchange services.

Marathon C-300

Photo of Marathon C-300 prototype (colour - 201k).
This vehicle was acquired by the Canadian National Museum of Science and Technology after this photo was taken. At least 2 of these vehicles were used by the Canadian Department of National Defence, which were later auctioned off to a private individual. One of those two eventually ended up at the Kortright Environmental Centre near Toronto ON. Another C-300 was used for battery-testing experiments at Trent University in Peterborough ON. Another C-300 was raffled off by the Knights of Columbus in Saskatoon SK in 1980 and won by a private individual. The U.S. National Parks Service took delivery of one C-300 in 1977 for use in the Washington D.C. area. Transport Canada acquired 2 C-300's, one of which was crash tested, and the disposition of the other is unknown.

Marathon C-360

The Marathon C-360 was a small delivery van. This vehicle had a few unique features: it was a six-wheeler, using a conventional front axle, and two rear axles; it used a body made of alucabond - a sandwich of aluminum sheets enclosing a layer of foam; and was available in both pure electric and hybrid versions. The body material was light-weight, and provided both sound and temperature insulating properties. The front-most of the rear axles carried a conventional automotive differential and delived drive power to the road. The rearmost axle carried the weight of the battery pack, and was referred to as a "captive trailer". It was a C-360 chassis that was used as the base of the Briggs & Stratton demonstration hybrid vehicle (see also). Initial versions of this vehicle did display some difficulties in controlling this extra axle while reversing and turning in demanding situations, and the drive-trains were subject to early failure. Both these problems were corrected in later versions of the vehicle, but by then it was too late for the company which ceased operations circa 1983. 10 of the C-360's were delivered to the United States Postal Service in Alexandria VA. 7 were delivered to the Canadian St. Lawrence Seaway Authority and saw use as maintenance vehicles on the Welland Canal system. Ontario Hydro took delivery of one C-360 in 1980. The Canadian Post Office evaluated 2 C-360 vans loaned to them by Marathon in Montreal in early 1982, but never actually purchased any.
Photo of Marathon C-360 van (colour - 212k).
This is actually the hybrid version of the Marathon C-360, although it is hard to determine this from the outside of the vehicle.

Marketeer - see Westinghouse - Marketeer


Marketour Electric Cars of Long Beach CA began production of its small electric car in 1964. The car was intended for shopping and running errands, and had a modest top speed and range.

Mars and Mars II - see Electric Fuel Propulsion


The Elektrizitats-Undautomobil-Gesellschaft Harff & Scwharz AG of Cologne (Germany) produced electric cars from 1899 to 1903. While some gasoline-powered cars and gasoline-electric hybrids were produced, the pure electrics were the mainstay of the company. They produced both private electric cars and commercial vehicles.

McKee Engineering Corp.

McKee produced the Sundancer I and Sundancer II electric concept cars in the 1970's. Using standard lead-acid batteries, these vehicles could travel over 90 km on a charge, and had a top speed in excess of 100 km/h.


The Menominee Electric Mfg. Co. of Menominee MI produced a small electric car in 1915, selling perhaps a hundred of them. This 2-seater electric was known as the Dudley Bug. The company was better known for producing electric powered commercial vehicles. Tiedmann was a principal of the company.


Setu electric van


The Milburn Light Electric website.

The Milburn Wagon Co. of Toledo OH produced electric cars from 1914 to 1922. The company began in 1848 making horse-drawn wagons. Milburn was one of the more successful electric car makers of the period, producing thousands of electric cars. Most were closed-bodied cars with small hoods, but some roadsters and a few that sported hoods resembling gasoline-powered cars were produced in small numbers. Milburns may have been available as late as 1927 on a custom-order basis. One is now in private hands in Ottawa ON.
1915 Milburn - view of exterior from driver's side (colour - 36K)
1915 Milburn - view of interior from driver door (colour - 27K)
1915 Milburn - view of interior from front window (colour - 58K)


Mildé et Cie. of Levallois-Perret (France) produced a variety of electric-propelled vehicles from 1898 to 1909. These included tractor units to pull horse-drawn carriages, to 3-wheeler open cars (known as Mildé-Mondos), to commercial vehicles and a series of more conventional 4-wheeler electric cars with both open and closed body styles. Later models boasted speeds in excess of 20 mph. Gasoline-electric hybrids appeared in the product line in 1904, often referred to as Mildé-Gaillardets. While production of private electric cars probably ceased in 1909, the firm continued to produce electric commercial vehicles until 1914 or later.

While conversions of La Licorne cars and Chenard-Walcker vans to electric power appeared during the Second World War under the name Mildé-Kriéger, it is probably not the same firm.


Mobilette Electric Cars of Long Beach CA began production of the Mobilette in 1965. It was a small electric runabout designed for low-speed missions such as shopping and running errands.

Model 7000

Produced by Minicars, Inc. of Goleta CA in the early 1980's, there wasn't much mini about the Model 7000, a full-size bus. Several of these vehicles were used in Denver CO on the 16th Street Mall to move people through the dense core area. This meant that (polluting) diesel buses did not cover this section, dropping off and picking up passengers at either end of the run operated by the electric buses.

Morris & Salom

Morris & Salom of Philadelphia, PA produced electric cars rom 1895 to 1897. The early vehicles from this company were called Electrobat.


William Morrison of Des Moines, IO built the second electric car in North America in 1890, an 8-seater, and produced electric cars commercially until 1896. Morrison was reputedly a quiet, mysterious man. He was educated in a Scottish university and by the time he arrived in Iowa he had become a vegetarian, a chemist and a man intensely interested in electricity. The creation of an automobile was of little concern to him in building this vehicle; rather, he wished to prove the worth of his storage batteries. In the summer of 1890 Morrison began installing batteries in a surrey-type, high-wheel carriage. It was a stock model with fringed canopy top and three rows of cushioned seats able to accommodate 12 passengers. A set of eight batteries was placed under each seat. The power was applied through a modified Siemens armature geared direct to the right rear wheel. Around 2-1/2 h.p., sufficient to drive the carriage 6 to 7 mph, could be developed. The vehicle ran on the streets of Des Moines in September 1890 and in 1891 was given to the American Battery Company of Chicago for demonstration purposes. Harold Sturgis, secretary of the Chicago concern, showed the carriage extensively and it became the most widely known self-propelled vehicle in America. In 1895 Sturgis installed a different motor in Morrison's electric and entered it in the Times-Herald race.
Print of 1890 Morrison-Sturgis Surrey (colour - 45k)

Morrison (2)

[Dead link:] Morrison Electric Coal Lorry

Morrison-Sturgis - see Morrison

Motette - see Canadian Motors

Murrill Motors Co.



There are a number of museums which have electric vehicles in their collections, though they may not always be on display.

The Birmingham & Midland Transport Museum,

This museum has over 30 electric vehicles, mostly commercial, in their collection.

Boyertown Museum of Historic Vehicles, Boyertown PA

Canadian Automotive Museum, Oshawa ON

Galt gasoline/electric hybrid car
McLaughlin Rauch & Lang car

Canadian National Museum of Science and Technology (NMST), Ottawa ON

Auranthetic Charger electric motorcycle
Baker electric car
Marathon C-300 electric car
Ward electric van

Hays Antique Truck Museum, Woodland CA

1916 Commercial Truck Model F-5 electric truck
1918 Walker Model P electric truck

Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn MI

Reynolds-Alberta Museum, Wetaskiwin SK
1911 Hupp-Yeats

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