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Last updated 2003.07.18
Items of Historical Interest in the Development and Commercialization of EVs
- M -
Marketeer - see Westinghouse
Maschinenfabrik Augsburn Nurnberg - see MAN
McLaughlin was far better known for their gasoline-powered vehicles, including the Canadian Royal Tour limousines and the various McLaughlin and Buick-McLaughlin models. However, the McLaughlin Carriage Company Limited of Oshawa, Ontario, did advertise for a time the availability of "McLaughlin Electrics on Rauch & Lang Chassis". (see also Rauch & Lang).
The Madelvic Motor Carriage Co. Ltd. of Granton (Scotland) produced an electric brougham from 1898 to 1900. The vehicle was driven by a small fifth wheel which sat below the body of the car, but which was attached to the front axle unit, which also carried the motor and batteries. This 3-wheel tractor unit could also be attached to horse-drawn carriages, replacing the horses. The company also produced some 2-seater electric cars, which drove the front wheels in a more conventional manner, prior to be absorbed by the Kingsburgh Motor Company in 1900.
Starting in 1974, M.A.N. produced battery-powered electric buses capable of carrying up to 100 passengers each. At least 20 of these buses were built, and they saw regular service in German cities for many years.
Marathon Electric Car
This company produced a series of electric golf carts and small industrial vehicles before entering the on-road electric vehicle market in the 1970's. While most production occurred in Montreal (Canada), a second manufacturing facility was established in South Carolina to service the expected demand in the U.S. Marathon supplied an electric-powered television camera platform for the Olympic marathon race at the 1976 Summer Olympic games held in Montreal. Prior to folding in the 1980's, after the 1970's demand for EVs had pretty much dried up in North America, this firm did produce a unique mobile banking kiosk for use inside Mirabel airport in 1982. This vehicle could be driven from gate to gate to meet passengers of incoming and departing aircraft to offer currency exchange services.
Photo of Marathon C-300 prototype (colour -
The Marathon C-360 was a small delivery van. This vehicle had a
few unique features: it was a six-wheeler, using a conventional
front axle, and two rear axles; it used a body made of alucabond -
a sandwich of aluminum sheets enclosing a layer of foam; and was
available in both pure electric and hybrid versions. The body
material was light-weight, and provided both sound and temperature
insulating properties. The front-most of the rear axles carried a
conventional automotive differential and delived drive power to
the road. The rearmost axle carried the weight of the battery
pack, and was referred to as a "captive trailer". It was
a C-360 chassis that was used as the base of the Briggs &
Stratton demonstration hybrid vehicle (see also). Initial versions
of this vehicle did display some difficulties in controlling this
extra axle while reversing and turning in demanding situations,
and the drive-trains were subject to early failure. Both these
problems were corrected in later versions of the vehicle, but by
then it was too late for the company which ceased operations circa
1983. 10 of the C-360's were delivered to the United States Postal
Service in Alexandria VA. 7 were delivered to the Canadian St.
Lawrence Seaway Authority and saw use as maintenance vehicles on
the Welland Canal system. Ontario Hydro took delivery of one C-360
in 1980. The Canadian Post Office evaluated 2 C-360 vans loaned to
them by Marathon in Montreal in early 1982, but never actually
Marketeer - see Westinghouse - Marketeer
Marketour Electric Cars of Long Beach CA began production of its small electric car in 1964. The car was intended for shopping and running errands, and had a modest top speed and range.
Mars and Mars II - see Electric Fuel Propulsion
The Elektrizitats-Undautomobil-Gesellschaft Harff & Scwharz AG of Cologne (Germany) produced electric cars from 1899 to 1903. While some gasoline-powered cars and gasoline-electric hybrids were produced, the pure electrics were the mainstay of the company. They produced both private electric cars and commercial vehicles.
McKee Engineering Corp.
McKee produced the Sundancer I and Sundancer II electric concept cars in the 1970's. Using standard lead-acid batteries, these vehicles could travel over 90 km on a charge, and had a top speed in excess of 100 km/h.
The Menominee Electric Mfg. Co. of Menominee MI produced a small electric car in 1915, selling perhaps a hundred of them. This 2-seater electric was known as the Dudley Bug. The company was better known for producing electric powered commercial vehicles. Tiedmann was a principal of the company.
Setu electric van
The Milburn Wagon Co. of Toledo OH produced electric cars from
1914 to 1922. The company began in 1848 making horse-drawn wagons.
Milburn was one of the more successful electric car makers of the
period, producing thousands of electric cars. Most were
closed-bodied cars with small hoods, but some roadsters and a few
that sported hoods resembling gasoline-powered cars were produced
in small numbers. Milburns may have been available as late as 1927
on a custom-order basis. One is now in private hands in Ottawa ON.
Mildé et Cie. of Levallois-Perret (France) produced a variety of electric-propelled vehicles from 1898 to 1909. These included tractor units to pull horse-drawn carriages, to 3-wheeler open cars (known as Mildé-Mondos), to commercial vehicles and a series of more conventional 4-wheeler electric cars with both open and closed body styles. Later models boasted speeds in excess of 20 mph. Gasoline-electric hybrids appeared in the product line in 1904, often referred to as Mildé-Gaillardets. While production of private electric cars probably ceased in 1909, the firm continued to produce electric commercial vehicles until 1914 or later.
While conversions of La Licorne cars and Chenard-Walcker vans to electric power appeared during the Second World War under the name Mildé-Kriéger, it is probably not the same firm.
Mobilette Electric Cars of Long Beach CA began production of the Mobilette in 1965. It was a small electric runabout designed for low-speed missions such as shopping and running errands.
Produced by Minicars, Inc. of Goleta CA in the early 1980's, there wasn't much mini about the Model 7000, a full-size bus. Several of these vehicles were used in Denver CO on the 16th Street Mall to move people through the dense core area. This meant that (polluting) diesel buses did not cover this section, dropping off and picking up passengers at either end of the run operated by the electric buses.
Morris & Salom
Morris & Salom of Philadelphia, PA produced electric cars rom 1895 to 1897. The early vehicles from this company were called Electrobat.
William Morrison of Des Moines, IO built the second electric
car in North America in 1890, an 8-seater, and produced electric
cars commercially until 1896. Morrison was reputedly a quiet,
mysterious man. He was educated in a Scottish university and by
the time he arrived in Iowa he had become a vegetarian, a chemist
and a man intensely interested in electricity. The creation of an
automobile was of little concern to him in building this vehicle;
rather, he wished to prove the worth of his storage batteries. In
the summer of 1890 Morrison began installing batteries in a
surrey-type, high-wheel carriage. It was a stock model with
fringed canopy top and three rows of cushioned seats able to
accommodate 12 passengers. A set of eight batteries was placed
under each seat. The power was applied through a modified Siemens
armature geared direct to the right rear wheel. Around 2-1/2 h.p.,
sufficient to drive the carriage 6 to 7 mph, could be developed.
The vehicle ran on the streets of Des Moines in September 1890 and
in 1891 was given to the American Battery Company of Chicago for
demonstration purposes. Harold Sturgis, secretary of the Chicago
concern, showed the carriage extensively and it became the most
widely known self-propelled vehicle in America. In 1895 Sturgis
installed a different motor in Morrison's electric and entered it
in the Times-Herald race.
Morrison-Sturgis - see Morrison
Motette - see Canadian Motors
Murrill Motors Co.
There are a number of museums which have electric vehicles in their collections, though they may not always be on display.
The Birmingham & Midland Transport Museum,
This museum has over 30 electric vehicles, mostly commercial, in their collection.
Boyertown Museum of Historic Vehicles, Boyertown PA
Canadian Automotive Museum, Oshawa ON
Galt gasoline/electric hybrid car
Canadian National Museum of Science and Technology (NMST), Ottawa ON
Auranthetic Charger electric motorcycle
Hays Antique Truck Museum, Woodland CA
1916 Commercial Truck Model F-5 electric truck
Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn MI
Reynolds-Alberta Museum, Wetaskiwin SK
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